What’s the Difference Between Statistical Significance and Clinical Significance?

There are two types of significance used to interpret research studies – statistical significance and clinical significance. They are not the same thing. One answers the question, Are the statistical results due to random chance? and the other answers the question, So what? Will the results matter to our patients?

Expert Advice: How to Evaluate the Credibility of an Online Website

Every month I answer a question from my readers and nursing colleagues. This month’s question is about evaluating the credibility of an online website and its associated content. There are many online websites that look good — but how do you know if you can trust the information they are

How to Write a Literature Review

At some point in your graduate nursing program, you will most likely have to write a literature review about an assigned topic or a self-selected topic (e.g., your thesis, dissertation, or capstone project topic). Undergraduate students don’t typically have to write a full-blown literature review; however, the tips in this post

What is Concept Mapping and Mind Mapping?

Concept mapping and mind mapping have been used in science education since the 1970s.  Nursing students in undergraduate and graduate classes are frequently asked to create concept maps or mind maps around a central concept or idea.  These assignments may be used for individual or group projects and as a

How to Write an Annotation and Annotated Bibliography or Reference List

At some point in time, your faculty may ask you to write an annotated bibliography or an annotated reference list.  This may happen in your undergraduate program, but it is more likely to be a requirement in your graduate program.   This post will define terms, outline the difference between

Career Advice: What are the Requirements for Prescriptive Authority for Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs)?

One of the frequent questions I hear from graduate students or practicing advanced practice registered nurses (APNs or APRNs) is about prescriptive authority. This post will review national and state requirements for APRNs to obtain prescriptive authority and provide online resources for further information. Click Here for Your Free Prescriptive

How to Use a Theory to Frame Your Research Study

This post will explain how to use a theory to frame a research study.  General recommendations that can be used for any research will be shared.  Theories, Frameworks, and Models – Oh My! Frameworks to guide research can be based on philosophies, theories, or conceptual models. Every research study has

5 Tips on Writing a Theory Paper

Several readers have asked me about providing a step-by-step on writing a theory paper. As every instructor has different criteria, that is a hard thing to do! But I think I can give some guidelines that I would give my students, that may be helpful for your theory paper assignments.

What is a Theoretical Framework or Conceptual Model?

I’ve gotten several requests to explain what a theoretical framework really is and how it’s different than a conceptual model. This post will cover why theoretical frameworks and conceptual models are important in nursing, explain the difference between the two, and provide a simple example of how research is used

Career Advice: How Do BSN-PhD or BSN-DNP Programs Work?

This month’s question about BSN-PhD/DNP programs comes from a hospital clinical educator who commented on my YouTube video on the choice between getting a PhD or a DNP in nursing. Nursing education has changed over the years in response to changes in social trends and healthcare mandates and to improve

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