Category Archives: How-To

How to Craft a Search Strategy to Answer Clinical Questions

This is part two of two posts to foster your ability to systematically frame your questions to craft a search strategy that will offer you the best chance at finding the relevant and valid evidence you need to answer those questions, in the most time-efficient manner possible.  The first post

Identifying and Building a Clinical Question for Research and Evidence-Based Practice

This post is the first of two parts for crafting an efficient search strategy for research studies and for evidence-based practice (EBP) projects. In this post, I’ll provide 4 steps to get you halfway to writing a search strategy. I’ll show you how to identify a clinical question and your knowledge

What Does “Grading the Evidence” Mean in Evidence-Based Practice?

When reviewing a clinical practice guideline (CPG) or systematic review (SR) with practice recommendations, you’ll notice two scales that are used in conjunction with each practice recommendation offered: a levels of evidence scale and a grading scale.   I talked about levels of evidence (LOE) hierarchies in last week’s post. This

What Does “Levels of Evidence” Mean in Evidence-Based Practice?

In evidence-based practice (EBP), we talk a lot about “Levels of Evidence.”  You will see levels of evidence (LOE) ratings on critically appraised topics or synopses of original research, or in the methodology section or evidence table of a clinical practice guideline or systematic review. But what does an LOE

Using the 6S Pyramid to Find the Best Evidence

  Whether you’ve got a research paper to write or you are looking for best evidence for a specific intervention, you’ve got to search for the evidence to make or back up your arguments, right? Presumably, you’ve answered your background questions and have your foreground question in a PICO format.

What Does “Pre-Appraised Evidence” Mean in Evidence-Based Practice?

When looking for evidence – where should you start? Well at the top of course! At the top of the hierarchy of evidence quality is pre-appraised evidence (Haynes, 2007). If you go through your university or medical library, there are multiple databases to search, such as MEDLINE or CINAHL. You

What Do Confidence Intervals Really Tell You?

P-values and Confidence Intervals In a previous post, I talked about p-values – what they tell you and what they don’t tell you. Quick recap since talking about confidence intervals is related to p-values: p-values ONLY tell you whether a research result is statistically significant or not based on the

What Do P-Values Really Mean?

This month’s blog theme is nursing research, so I’m discussing the meaning of some statistical concepts to help you interpret the research studies you are reading.  I’m going to talk about several concepts this month that I have found both undergraduate and graduate students struggle to really understand. Last week

Expert Advice: How to Evaluate the Credibility of an Online Website

Every month I answer a question from my readers and nursing colleagues. This month’s question is about evaluating the credibility of an online website and its associated content. There are many online websites that look good — but how do you know if you can trust the information they are

How to Write a Literature Review

At some point in your graduate nursing program, you will most likely have to write a literature review about an assigned topic or a self-selected topic (e.g., your thesis, dissertation, or capstone project topic). Undergraduate students don’t typically have to write a full-blown literature review; however, the tips in this post

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